The architectural and constructional solutions are elaborated for the following conditions:
Area, situated in a moderate-continental climate.
January is the coldest month, with middle air temperature of -11.6 С°. June is the hottest month, with middle air temperature of +18.6 С°.
According to ТСН 31-301-96 НН “Constructional Climatology for Regions in the Nizhniy Novgorod Area”:
The lowest possible air temperature: -41 С°.
The highest possible air temperature: +36 С°.
Average velocity of wind is 3.7 m/s with middle air temperature of <8 С° throughout the day.
Over the year, southwest and west wind directions are superior in the given region.
Essential Resolutions According to the General Plan
The general site of this project is in Rybinskaya Street, Nizhniy Novgorod region. Geographical coordinates presented:
Area appears as a cored, inclined surface.
Standard depth of the priming’s freezing is 1.41m, Calculated – 1.55m.
Pursuant to the Construction Rules and Regulations 2.01.01-82-1, the constructional region is in the IIВ climatic sub-district.
As for privileges, the project offers a convenient road entry for vehicles, footpaths, fire-escaping passage. The width and construction of coatings are taking into account their technological purpose and fire-fighting services efficiency. The project also provides arrangement of fencing, lawns, and shrub-made hedges.
The placement of engineering networks is carried out in accordance with the general decision of the horizontal and vertical layouts.
Essential Indicators of the Project
Number of floors: 3
Construction site: 176.6 m²
General area: 376.22 m²
Building volume: 1856.0 m3
Durability of the building = II
Fire resistance degree of the building = III
Technical solutions adopted in the project comply with the environmental, sanitary, and fire regulation norms approved on the territory of Russian Federation; and ensure safe exploitation of the building in compliance with the activities envisaged by the project and the rules of exploitation.
A three-storey building, stretched along the depth of the site.
Volume-planning solutions are elaborated with consideration of the following factors:
• Area size and proportion
• Cardinal points and insolation issues
• Constructional layout of the building
• Fire safety norms
• Wind rose
The basis of planning solutions cite to the principles of passive solar architecture. Materials with high density, such as bricks, concrete, and stone, are chosen for internal surfaces. The foregoing materials are capable of storing thermal energy for its constant slow emission, due to the effect of thermal inertia (the ability to absorb energy and release it after a certain amount of time). This permits the reduction of temperature fluctuations in the building and the potential overheating of indoor air.
The location and arrangement of the windows, as well as their shape, are thoroughly elaborated in order to create sophisticated interior insolation. According to 23-05-95 “Inartificial and Artificial Lighting”, the illuminating standards of residential rooms are implemented. An essential role in this is trusted to large skylights, raying daylight to the core of the house. In relation to the adjacent residential buildings, the location of the designed house in the site provides insolation of premises in accordance with the requirements of the Construction Rules and Regulations 2.2.1. / 22.214.171.1246-01. The windows of east and west facades do not appear as normative insolation sources for residential areas.
Concise appearance of the building is a reflection of the functional solution of the internal space and structural layout of the building, consisting of a framed structure with a two meters long single-stage console.
It is appropriate to mention the economy of the material and financial resources that are used in the creation of design forms. Rationality is strongly observed in the composition, taking into account the objective laws of its functional and artistic construction. This twofold building is detected merely through a systematic analysis of the form, which is the pinnacle of rational sound shaping. In this case, the expressive silhouette-elements and outline-elements of constructive-plastic compositions vividly contrast with one another. The extent of its complexity is determined, firstly according to the strength and feasibility of the design, and secondly, due to the artistic expression built on the basis of its form. This form entirely meets the principle of tectonics.
The northeast areas are provided with illumination, and the console part of the building is facilitated by virtue of a recess in the volume of the construction. Facilitation of the construction also entails the optimizing of loads and, therefore, of expenditures. As an expressive-artistic reception of the facade’s plane, the foregoing recesses are lined with a different building material, distinguishable from the main one.
The southern part has large panoramic windows.
In the composition of facades, the traditional decoration and the building materials (concrete, wood, metal) play a significant role. In the newest interpretations, they create an austere and modern image of individual housing.
Northern facade - almost blind. Entrance lobby and a garage for two cars are located to the north from the building. The porch is a semi-closed space, entirely protected from wind, rain, and snow. It is a very individual link for each house, providing the connection of the interior and exterior. The volume of the building has ledges from the north. To avoid heat loss or complications with heat-insulating surfaces, and the risks associated with them, it was decided to use the floor above the porch as a balcony.
The vertical division of the scope allowed:
• The full insolation of northern areas to the east due to an indent of the wall in the second floor on main facade.
• Emphasize the tectonics of the character as carrier (internal, framed) and carried (external mounted) elements. Constructive scheme becomes a compositionally plastic forming tool.
The building has 2 inputs and one stairwell. Reinforced concrete half-pace stairs connect the floors. The height from the floor to the ceiling of the ground floor is 3.30m, and the second and third floors’ is 3m.
Dimensions of the building: width – 9.06m, length – 17.26m, height – 11.80m
Load-bearing structure of the building is a monolithic reinforced concrete frame.
Building envelopes of the residential construction are designed in accordance with the requirements of SNIP-II-3-79* “The Constructional heating equipment”
Foundations: Foundation type and its depth are defined in the project as a result of geotechnical studies;
Exterior walls: Foam block, facing bricks, wood front panels;
Partitions: 100mm and 200mm foam block, bricks;
Covering: Monolithic reinforced concrete slabs;
Stairs: Reinforced concrete, half-pace;
Roof: Flat combined, with an internal drainage;
Windows: Aluminum frames with thermal bridge, double glazing;
Doors: Interior doors – wooden; entrance – metal;
Flooring: Parquet in living rooms, in bathrooms – ceramic granite, garage - self-leveling floor, balconies and terraces – decking.
• Some principles of ecologic friendly architecture are used in the design. Certain attention is paid to insolation and insulation of the building. Windows of the building includes three-layer glazing with an inert gas, which allows keeping the temperature stable. During summer period awnings and umbrellas will be used for protection from the sun. Preference is given to the local building materials. The above measures significantly reduce energy consumption and damage to the environment.
• Preservation of green spaces during construction of the cottage.
• Valuable trees on the construction site – Not available.
• Ensure removal of the construction debris at specially permitted landfills.
Environment friendly, non-flammable materials that do not emit harmful substances during construction process and exploitation of the building are used in the design. Packaging of the entire construction materials, as well as waste materials can be recycled or salvaged.
SNIP 11-01-95 "Instruction on the development, coordination, approval and composition of the project documentation for construction of enterprises, buildings and structures".
SNIP 02/31/2001 "Single family houses" ·
Technical Report on geotechnical investigations for construction at the site, located at Rybinskaya Str. 53, bld. 2.
Volumetric-spatial composition. Handbook for students majoring DAS 1-2 courses on the subject "The volumetric-spatial composition"
Compiled by B.Y.Sotnikov, Ulyanovsk 2009.
“Residential Eco Houses”.
“Volumetric-spatial composition", edited by prof. A.V.Stepanova, Moscow 2014.
«100 Contemporary Houses» Philip Jodido, Taschen 2012.
«Living in the New Millennium» Maire Cox, Phaidon 2010.
«Fassaden Konstruktion und Gestaltung mit Betonfertigteilen» Dr. J.Brandt, Prof.Dipl.-Ing.G.V.Heene, Dr.-Ing. F.Kind-Barkauskas, Beton-Verlag 2010.
«DETAIL» Zeitschrift fuer Architektur+Baudetail.